Type 1: Typical compound Nouns – STRESS ON the FIRST WORD
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As shown on Page 8, many phrasal verbs can be converted to a compound noun by simply joining (or hyphenating) the two words and changing the stress to the first word. For example: a throwaway; a printout; a checkup; a breakthrough. This stress is quite strong.
The examples of these in the diagnostic test are: 3 a buildup; 4 a checkup; 23 a printout These are shown on Page 8.
Sometimes the words are reversed, with the adverb first and the verb second. Notice that the stressed word is still the first word. The examples shown on this page belong to this group. Examples in the diagnostic test of the adverb first and the verb second are: 41 an income; 43 an output; 44 an upgrade These are the types of compound nouns shown on this page and there are fewer of these than the examples shown on Page 8.
The Examples on This Page
Not all of these examples have corresponding phrasal verbs. Some of them were simply created based on the existing pattern of compound nouns formed from phrasal verbs.
The first word is an adverb of place such as 'up', 'down', 'back', 'in' etc.
The general pattern here is that: a) there exists a phrasal verb such as "to wash back" (or the idea exists if no generally used phrasal verb exists) and b) from that, a compound noun is formed by reversing the word order - "a backwash" and c) calling the original verb, "wash" in this case, a noun.
On this last point: Many but not all words that are verbs can also be used as nouns, such as "to wash" and "a wash" or, "to cut" and "a cut". However, in the examples shown on this page, some of these verbs don't really have a noun form. For example, for the words, "an income" and, "an output" the verbs, "come" and "put" exist but there is no noun, "a come" and the noun, "a put" is rare and specialized.
The stress pattern of the examples on this page is another example of the general rule: "When two words are joined together in writing, i.e., written as one word, to form a noun, no matter what type of word the first word is (whether a noun, adjective, adverb, preposition or verb), the first word is spoken with more stress than the second word."
Note that this applies only when two words are combined to form a noun. Verbs that are formed in this way generally have the stress on the second word, such as "to overtax" and "to overthrow".
If you decide to learn some words from this list, I suggest you don't pay too much attention to the phrasal verbs but instead, concentrate on the compound nouns. That is because many of the phrasal verbs shown here have a usual meaning and usage that is different to the meanings here. For example, the phrasal verb, "to put in" has a very general and wide usage. For example, "I put the milk into the refrigerator." In this list, the compound noun that goes with "put in", "input" is used in situations such as: "I didn't hear much input from him when we were discussing this topic at the staff meeting." But, we do not say, "I'd like to put in my opinion/suggestion/ideas."
Another example: "The university had a smaller than usual intake of new students last year." But we don't normally say, "The university took in fewer students last year", although that would not sound like a bad error to an English speaker. Normally, we would say, "The university enrolled fewer students last year"
In general, I suggest you use other materials to learn phrasal verbs, not the list below, although some of the phrasal verbs below do accurately reflect the meaning behind the compound noun shown with them. (On the other hand, the phrasal verbs on Page 8 are suitable to use to add to your knowledge of phrasal verbs.)
Note that many of these have idiomatic or specialized meanings that are not immediately apparent from just looking at the words.
Similar to Type 2 stress pattern
Type 1 stress pattern
to come in
to go out
outgoings (plural noun) = expenditure
"to put out" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning)
to put in
"to grade up" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning) The real verb is "to upgrade".
"to grade down" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning) The real verb is "to downgrade".
to fall freely
"to dent in" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning) The real verb is "to indent".
to flow in
to flow out
to take in (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning)
to break out
to burst out
to cast out
"to come out" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning)
to crop out
to cry out an outcry
to fit out / "to outfit" can also be a verb.
to let out
"to line out" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning)
to grow out
to look out
"to pour out" (Figuratively used for this meaning)
to rig out
to fall down
"to load down" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning) The real verb is, "to download".
to pour down
to cut off
"to spring off" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning)
to look on
to rush onwards
to grow under
to lay under / to underlay
to pass under
"to tow under" (Not a standard phrasal verb, although the phrase is possible.)
to flow over / to overflow
to grow over
to pass over
"to view over" (Not a real phrasal verb)
to bring up
"to date up" (Not a real phrasal verb) The real verb is, "to update".
to keep up
to lift up / to uplift an uplift
to rise up
"a roaring sound that is rising up" (Not a real phrasal verb)
to turn up / to upturn (The verb, "to upturn" Not really related to the noun, "an upturn".)
to surge up an upsurge
to swing up
"to see in" (Not a real phrasal verb for this meaning)
"to wash back" (Not a standard phrasal verb although the phrase is possible.)