ielts-yasi.englishlab.net          

Updated Nov 24, 2016

 

VOCABULARY LISTS (Page 4)

Note that if you incorrectly or inappropriately use what you think is an example of "high level" vocabulary, you might actually lose points for vocabulary rather than gain points. This is mostly because communication can be damaged, or even broken, by such errors. In other words, using a simple word or repeating the same word is usually better than using an "impressive" word incorrectly. Clear communication is the Number 1 priority in the IELTS test!

To Vocabulary Lists Page 1

To Vocabulary Lists Page 2

To Vocabulary Lists Page 3

 

Index

42. Toys

43. Trees and Forests

44. Memory

45. Imagination

***********************************************************************

42. Toys

Many children's toys involve the child playing a role, an imagined adult role. For example, boys play with toy weapons and imagine they are soldiers (killing people) while girls play with doll babies (= baby dolls), imagining they are mothers (taking care of new-born life).

Pronunciation

Words of the pattern, "toy + noun", such as "toy piano", "toy gun", "toy rabbit" are pronounced with the noun spoken more emphatically than the word, "toy". It is the same stress pattern as with the words, "model + noun". Here is the way, "model railway" is pronounced.

+++++++++++++

Other Internet Sites about Toys

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toys

http://www.toysrus.com

http://www.toyworld.com.au/

http://www.ecotoys.com.au/store/

+++++++++++++

For Both Boys and Girls

   

       

          

   

        ("Building brick" is pronounced with the same stress pattern as "building block".)

       

(For pronunciation of "wind-up" - http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=wind+up&submit=Submit wind-up & definition 4 here - http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/wind_24#wind_40)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OeuATs-Mhlw

A Robot Dog

       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kite

           

        http://www.pogostickusa.com/

            A jigsaw puzzle

       

        

    

+++++++++++++

Mostly for Boys

   

    http://www.landofmarbles.com/marbles-play.html

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marble_%28toy%29

        

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YOYO

            - a toy gun

            - a toy sword

      

      

           http://www.toysrus.com.au/train-sets/w1/i1181250/

         

           https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meccano                     

        

        

         http://www.fishpond.com.au/c/Toys/q/Bow+And+Arrow+Toys

 

           

 

        

         http://www.transformerland.com/

+++++++++++++

Mostly for Girls

     

           

       

    

***********************************************************************

43. Trees and Forests

Parts of a Tree

- the roots

- the trunk

- the bark

- the branches

- leaves, plural of leaf (or "needles" for some pine trees)

- flowers and seeds

 

What Trees Give Us

- timber (for construction, furniture, paper etc.)

- firewood (esp. in poor parts of the world)

- shade (for humans and some farm animals) ["Shade" and "shadow" are different. A shadow is a silhouette on a flat surface such as a wall or the ground. It is 2D. Shade is 3D. A shadow can be produced by the sun or a man-made light, but the word "shade" is only used in connection with the sun, i.e., outside.] Adjective - shady

- a home for birds and small animals

- greenery (beautification, important for city dwellers in parks and gardens)

- soil stabilization (esp. important on mountain slopes; mangrove trees stabilize coastal areas + provide breeding grounds for fish)

- trees act as windbreaks (usually on farmland to prevent wind erosion; in Northern China, to help prevent dust-storms)

- important for the ecology of an area (e.g., food for bees and other insects, a home for living creatures, etc.) It is best to say, "the ecology of an area", not just "the ecology" like the way we say, "the environment".

- large forested areas promote rainfall (large reforested areas amazingly have more rainfall after the trees grow again) (See Note, below)

- trees help to regulate underground water flows (After trees are cleared, sometimes the underground water table rises to the surface, bringing salt to the soil and thereby damaging farmland. This is "salinization" of the soil.) (See Note, below)

- oxygen = O2 (fresh air; trees absorb carbon dioxide, CO2, which is food for trees, and give off oxygen)

- medicines

- sap (rubber, edible syrup etc.)

- fruits and some nuts

- spices and flavourings

- cork

- balsa wood

 

Forests

- a virgin forest ( =  a native forest; usually = an old growth forest)

- a rainforest (tropical rainforest; temperate rainforest. There are also dry climate forests.)

- a commercial forest (usually = a "plantation", most often fast-growing trees such as pine)

- a national park (Most national parks contain forests - camping, hiking in some national parks; can see wild animals)

- wilderness

- logging (verbal noun, an activity, to create and transport logs. )

- timber ("Lumber" is more American English and refers to timber that has been cut into boards or pieces of wood, ready for use. There is "the timber industry" but, "the lumber industry" is not a common expression, although "the lumber trade" is used in the U.S.)

- softwood

- hardwood

- a bush fire (mostly used in Australia, NZ & English-speaking parts of Africa = a forest fire)

- undergrowth (what grows under the trees in a forest)

- a "wooded" area (similar to a "forest"; not necessarily a native forest - it could be a plantation or simply some tress planted by humans). The tree are not as close together in a wooded area as they are in a forest.

- forestry = the science and practice of planting, caring for and managing forests

 

Some Other Vocabulary Associated with Trees

- to lop a branch off a tree (= to cut off)

- to prune a small tree, hedge or shrub (= to trim it)

- to cut down a tree (= to "chop down" a tree when an axe is used = [a bit more formal-sounding] to "fell" a tree)

- an axe

- a chainsaw

- a hollow tree

- a log (a hollow log is often a home to animals)

- a tree house (No, it's not a house where trees live. It's a tree where a house lives!)

- a fork in a tree

- fragrant

- a (tree) stump

- to shed leaves (deciduous trees shed their leaves in winter)

- a dead tree

- Some tree leaves change colour (to red, yellow etc.)

- a pine cone; pine needles

- a Christmas tree (usually a pine tree)

- deforestation (the possible start of desertification)

- tree rings (give the age of a tree)

- a swing (child's plaything hanging from a strong tree branch)

- to uproot a tree (what a typhoon or cyclone does to some trees)

- an overhanging tree (usually overhanging a fence or a house)

- an orchard (a farm consisting of fruit trees)

- a sapling (a young, immature tree)

- a twig (a small piece of a dead tree branch, like a short stick, not necessarily straight)

- a few trees "dotting the landscape" (= a few trees appearing on a landscape such as farmland where there are not many trees)

- deciduous trees (shed their leaves in winter)

- evergreen trees (keep their leaves in winter)

- termites = white ants (they eat wood, usually dead trees and fallen branches)

- a bonsai tree (small twisted ornamental tree in Japan, produced by humans twisting the tree when it is young)

 

A Few Varieties of Tree

It might be a good idea to know the English name for one or two trees in your area. But, at the same time, you need to be careful in the test of showing that you obviously knew that this topic is in the test and obviously showing that you are speaking a prepared answer. Examiners don't like that (both of them) and, in fact, the examiner could deduct points from your score if you show it too much throughout the test.

- a eucalyptus tree ( = a gum tree. An Australian tree that has also been planted in many parts of the world. There are many varieties of this species, as with most of the species shown below.)

- a palm tree (coconut palm, date palm, etc.)

- a banana tree (and many other fruits)

- a pine tree

- a willow tree

- a poplar tree

- an oak tree

- a mahogany tree

- an ash tree

- a cedar tree

- a fir tree

- a birch tree

- an olive tree (Esp. in the Middle East and the Mediterranean area; for food)

 

Some internet links

Vocabulary lists - (not all the words on these pages are useful for the IELTS test)

http://www.enchantedlearning.com/wordlist/tree.shtml

http://www.hkhk.edu.ee/botany/picture_dictionary__forest.html

http://www.bhg.com/gardening/plant-dictionary/tree/eucalyptus/

Tree Houses

(Kids love tree houses)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_house

http://www.photographyblogger.net/15-nostalgic-treehouse-pictures/

Forests

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forest  (Very many more links at the bottom of that page)

+++++++++++++

Note  (about large forested areas promoting rainfall)

Although this is a valid fact, I think not many examiners would know about this. Some examiners might even think you had made a mistake of some kind in your English because they might not understand what you are talking about if you say this. So, since this is rather complex to explain and since Part 1 answers should be rather summarized, it would be best to only use this fact in a Part 3 answer, when you can, and should, give longer, more complex answers.

Another point is this - you need to be careful not to speak so that the examiner knows, or is almost sure that you have read this website. If the examiner thinks you have read this website, he or she might be extra strict when grading your answers, might actually reduce your score if they recognize a memorized answer, and also might ask you questions that are much more difficult than usual.

***********************************************************************

44. Memory

Look up the meanings, pronunciation & uses of these in good dictionaries & other reference books.

The two words that are most often mistakenly used are "memorize" and "memory". You need to understand the difference between "a memory" (= an ability; such as, "I don't have a good memory" ), and on the other hand, and "a memory" (= something remembered)

An interesting fact about memory is that it is easier to learn (= to understand and remember) new abstract concepts such as new mathematics when things, including some steps or processes, are given a name. Another example is the verb tenses in English. If you first learn the names of the 12 verb tenses, even in your own language, then it is easier to learn more about these verb tenses.

***********************************************************************

45. Imagination

the imagination (uncountable noun) = the power of imagination

to imagine (to "see" something in your mind, not using the eyes; = to visualize)

imaginary (= not real but believed to be real in some cases)

to visualize (when you cannot actually see something with your eyes)

abstract (= not concrete)

 

Uses of the Imagination 

when understanding abstract ideas or concepts (= "when understanding" since all ideas and concepts are abstract; i.e., all ideas and concepts are in the mind)

problem-solving

thinking of possibilities

predicting future possibilities

visionary (far-sighted)

to hope

goal-setting (and visualizing achieving the goal)

to create

creativity (uncountable noun; an ability)

creative

a creation

to invent

an invention

to innovate

an innovation

innovative

when creating art (especially when the art is a form of self-expression, or representing an idea, not simply copying)

artistic

when appreciating art (imagining the meaning, ideas or feelings of the artist)

when reading a novel or listening to a story (= visualizing the people, the scenery, the actions etc.)

when trying to follow or understand an explanation

when listening to the radio (visualizing what is being talked about)

when speaking to someone on the telephone (visualizing the face of the other person)

story-telling (story creation)

a myth (= an imaginary or untrue explanation or belief)

mythical

when empathizing with another person; when feeling empathy (= imagining oneself in the other person's situation; imagining oneself feeling what the other person is feeling)

when showing kindness (imagining what another living creature needs or wants; similar to empathizing)

when teaching or explaining (imagining the steps to understanding that the student or the other person needs to experience)

when communicating (imagining how the other person is understanding you)

***********************************************************************