ielts-yasi.englishlab.net

Written May 4, 2014

 

The Pronunciation of the Verbs Ending in 'ate'

[Before you read any further, you need to understand what "word stress" means. If a word in English has more than one syllable (音节), one particular syllable in the word is spoken more strongly, or a little louder than the other syllables. This is called the "word stress". For example, "umbrella" is pronounced with the word stress on the second syllable, "bre".]

Click on any blue word to hear the pronunciation.

Question: Why is "graduated" pronounced with a different stress pattern to "graduation"? That is, why is "graduated" pronounced with the first syllable stressed (graduated) while "graduation" is pronounced with the third syllable stressed ( graduation)? Actually, all nouns that end with "ation" are pronounced with the "a" as the main stressed syllable.

  For most 2-syllable "ate" verbs, the second syllable has the word stress, i.e., on the "ate" part of the verb. For example, "cre/ate", "do/nate" and, "re/late". There are also several 2-syllable words that have the word stress on the first syllable, mostly in American English. This will be discussed below.

  For all 3-syllable "ate" verbs, the first syllable has the word stress. For example, "gra/du/ate", "ce/le/brate" and, "e/sti/mate". Think of the stress pattern as, "1-2-3"

  For all 4-syllable "ate" verbs, the second syllable has the word stress. For example, "co/mmu/ni/cate", "a/ccu/mu/late", "e/xa/gge/rate" and, "co/mme/mo/rate". Think of the stress pattern as, "1-2-3-4"

  For all 5-syllable "ate" verbs, the third syllable has the word stress. For example, "di/ffer/en/ti/ate", "re/ha/bi/li/tate" and, "re/in/vi/gor/ate". Think of the stress pattern as, "1-2-3-4-5"

  To summarize: For the 3, 4 & 5-syllable "ate" verbs, the stressed syllable is followed by two unstressed syllables.

By co-incidence, most 2-syllable 'ate' verbs have the stress on the "ate" such as  "cre/ate", "do/nate" and, "re/late". So "creative", "created", and "creating" all have the same main stressed syllable as as "creation". But words derived from the 3, 4 and 5-syllable verbs NEVER have the "at" part stressed, as it is in their noun forms that end with "ation".

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Lists of "ate" verbs

http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/

http://www.macmillandictionary.com/

http://www.collinsdictionary.com/

http://www.howjsay.com/  (pronunciation only)

 

Two-Syllable "ate" Verbs

VERB

NOUN

FIRST SYLLABLE STRESSED

SECOND SYLLABLE STRESSED

aerate 2

aeration 2

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/aerate (Am & Br)

 http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=aerate&submit=Submit (Br)

create

creation

 

  http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=create&submit=Submit (Am & Br)

cremate

cremation

 

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/cremate Am & Br)

deflate

deflation

 

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/deflate(Am & Br)

dictate

dictation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/dictate_1(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/dictate_1(Br)

donate

donation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/donate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/donate(Br)

filtrate 1

filtration 1

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/filtrate(Am & Br)

 

fixation

 

 fixated (adjective) http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/fixated(Am & Br)

frustrate

frustration

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/frustrate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/frustrate(Br)

gestate 1

gestation 2

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/gestate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/gestate(Br)

gyrate

gyration

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/gyrate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/gyrate(Br)

hydrate 1

hydration 1

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/hydrate(Both Am & Br)

  http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/hydrate(Both Am & Br)

inflate

inflation

 

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/inflate(Am & Br)

lactate 2

lactation 2

 

http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/lactate(Am & Br)

mutate

mutation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/mutate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/mutate(Br)

narrate

narration

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/narrate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/narrate(Am & Br)

negate

negation

 

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/negate(Am & Br)

relate

relation

 

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/relate(Am & Br)

rotate

rotation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/rotate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/rotate(Br)

stagnate

stagnation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/stagnate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/stagnate(Br)

translate

translation

 

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/translate(Am & Br)

truncate

truncation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/truncate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/truncate(Br)

vacate

vacation

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/vacate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/vacate(Am & Br)

vibrate

vibration

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/vibrate(Am)

 http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/vibrate(Am & Br)

 

Three-Syllable "ate" Verbs

      VERB

     NOUN

Notes

abrogate

abrogation

 

acclimate

acclimation

 

activate

activation

 

actuate 1

actuation 1

 

advocate

advocacy (not an "ation" noun)

advocated

aggravate

aggravation

 

agitate

agitation

 

alienate

alienation

 

allocate

allocation

 

amputate

amputation

 

animate

animation

 

annotate

annotation

 

arbitrate

arbitration

 

automate

automation

 

calibrate

calibration

 

captivate

captivation

 

carbonate

carbonation

 

castigate

castigation 2

 

celebrate

celebration

 

chlorinate

chlorination

 

circulate

circulation

 

collocate 2

collocation 2

 

compensate

compensation

 

complicate

complication

 

concentrate

concentration

 

confiscate

confiscation

 

congregate

congregation

 

conjugate 2

conjugation  2

 

contemplate

contemplation

 

correlate

correlation

 

culminate

culmination

 

cultivate

cultivation

 

dedicate

dedication

 

defecate 2

defecation 2

 

delegate

delegation

 

demarcate 1

demarcation 1

 

demonstrate

demonstration

 

denigrate

denigration

 

desecrate

desecration

 

detonate

detonation

 

devastate

devastation

 

dominate

domination

 

duplicate

duplication

 

educate

education

 

elevate

elevation

 

elongate

elongation

 

emigrate

emigration

 

escalate

escalation

 

estimate

estimation

 

excavate

excavation

 

fabricate

fabrication

 

fascinate

fascination

 

federate

federation

 

flagellate 1

flagellation 1

 

fluctuate

fluctuation

 

fluoridate

fluoridation

 

foliation 1

 foliated 1

formulate

formulate

 

fractionation 1

fractionated 1

generate

generation

 

germinate

germination

 

graduate

graduation

 

gravitate

gravitation

 

hesitate

hesitation

 

hibernate

hibernation

 

hyphenate

hyphenation

 

illustrate

illustration

 

immigrate

immigration

 

implicate

implication

 

impregnate 2 (Br)

impregnate 2 (Am)

impregnation 2

 

incubate

incubation

 

indicate

indication

 

infiltrate

infiltration

 

innovate

innovation

 

instigate

instigation

 

insulate

insulation

 

inundate

inundation

 

irrigate

irrigation

 

isolate

isolation

 

iterate 2

iteration

 

lacerate

laceration

 

laminate

lamination

 

legislate

legislation

 

levitate

levitation

 

liberate

liberation

 

liquidate

liquidation

 

litigate

litigation

 

lubricate

lubrication

 

masticate 2

mastication 2

 

mediate

mediation

 

medicate

medication

 

meditate

meditation

 

moderate

moderation

 

modulate

modulation

 

motivate

motivation

 

navigate

navigation

 

nominate

nomination

 

numerate

numeration

 

obfuscate 2

obfuscation 2

 

obligate

obligation

 

operate

operation

 

orchestrate

orchestration

 

orientate

orientation

 

oscillate

oscillation

 

palpitate 2

palpitation 2

 

penetrate

penetration

 

percolate

percolation

 

perforate

perforation

 

permeate

permeation

 

perpetrate

perpetration

 

pollinate

pollination

 

populate

population

 

postulate 2

postulation 2

 

predicate

predication

 

procreate

procreation

 

propagate

propagation

 

punctuate

punctuation

 

radiate

radiation

 

relocate

relocation

 

remonstrate

remonstration

 

replicate

replication

 

salinate 2

salination 2

 

salivate

salivation

 

satiate

satiation

 

separate

separation

 

simulate

simulation

 

situate

situation

 

speculate

speculation

 

stimulate

stimulation

 

stipulate

stipulation

 

subjugate

subjugation

 

suffocate

suffocation

 

supplicate 1

supplication 1

 

syncopate 2

syncopation 2

 

syndicate

syndication

 

tabulate

tabulation

 

terminate

termination

 

titillate 2

titillation 2

 

undulate

undulation

 

urinate

urination

 

vaccinate

vaccination

 

vacillate

vacillation

 

validate

validation

 

valuate

valuation

 

vegetate

vegetation

 

venerate

veneration

 

ventilate

ventilation

 

vindicate

vindication

 

violate

violation

 

vitiate 1

vitiation 1

 

 

Four-Syllable "ate" Verbs

      VERB

      NOUN

Notes

abbreviate

abbreviation

 

accelerate

acceleration

 

accommodate

accommodation

 

accumulate

accumulation

 

adjudicate

adjudication

 

administrate

administration

 

adulterate

adulteration

 

agglomerate 1

agglomeration 2

 

alleviate

alleviation

 

amalgamate

amalgamation

 

ameliorate

amelioration

 

annihilate

annihilation

 

appreciate

appreciation

 

approximate

approximation

 

articulate

articulation

 

assassinate

assassination

 

assimilate

assimilation

 

associate

association

 

attenuate 2

attenuation 2

 

authenticate

authentication

 

capitulate 2

capitulation 2

 

coagulate 2

coagulation 1

 

collaborate

collaboration

 

commemorate

commemoration

 

commiserate

commiseration

 

communicate

communication

 

confederate

confederation

 

conglomerate

conglomeration

 

congratulate

congratulation

 

consolidate

consolidation

 

contaminate

contamination

 

cooperate

cooperation

 

corroborate

corroboration

 

deactivate

deactivation

 

debilitate

debilitation

 

decelerate

deceleration

 

defoliate 2

defoliation 2

 

degenerate

degeneration

 

deliberate

deliberation

 

depopulate

depopulation

 

depreciate

depreciation

 

desalinate

desalination

 

deteriorate

deterioration

 

discriminate

discrimination

 

disintegrate

disintegration

 

dissociate

dissociation

 

domesticate

domestication

 

emancipate

emancipation

 

encapsulate

encapsulation

 

enumerate

enumeration

 

eradicate

eradication

 

evacuate

evacuation

 

evaporate

evaporation

 

eventuate

eventuation

 

exaggerate

exaggeration

 

expropriate

expropriation

 

illuminate

illumination

 

incorporate

incorporation

 

infatuate

infatuation

 

ingratiate

ingratiation

 

initiate

initiation

 

inoculate

inoculation

 

interpolate

interpolation

 

interrogate

interrogation

 

intimidate

intimidation

 

intoxicate

intoxication

 

investigate

investigation

 

invigilate

invigilation

 

irradiate

irradiation

 

miscalculate

miscalculation

 

necessitate

necessitation

 

negotiate

negotiation

 

obliterate

obliteration

 

participate

participation

 

perpetuate

perpetuation

 

pontificate 2

pontification 2

 

precipitate

precipitation

 

predominate

predomination

 

premeditate

premeditation

 

prevaricate 2

prevarication 2

 

propitiate 1

propitiation 1

 

reactivate

reactivation

 

reallocate

reallocation

 

recalibrate 2

recalibration 2

 

reciprocate

reciprocation

 

redecorate

redecoration

 

reeducate

reeducation

 

reformulate 2

reformulation 2

 

refrigerate

refrigeration

 

regenerate

regeneration

 

regurgitate 2

regurgitation 2

 

reincarnate 2

reincarnation

 

reiterate

reiteration

 

rejuvenate

rejuvenation

 

remediate

remediation

 

remunerate

remuneration

 

repatriate

repatriation

 

resuscitate

resuscitation

 

retaliate

retaliation

 

sophistication

 sophisticated    (adjective)

reverberate

reverberation

 

subordinate

subordination

 

transliterate 1

transliteration 1

 

triangulate 1

triangulation 1

 

 

Five-Syllable "ate" Verbs

VERB

NOUN

Notes

decontaminate

decontamination

 

differentiate

differentiation

 

excommunicate 2

excommunication 2

 

hyperventilate 2

hyperventilation 2

 

incapacitate

incapacitation

 

miscommunicate

miscommunication

 

overcompensate

overcompensation

 

overestimate

overestimation

 

 overregulated (adjective)

recapitulate 2

recapitulation 2

 

re-evaluate

reevaluation

 

rehabilitate

rehabilitation

 

reinvigorate

reinvigoration

 

superannuate 2

superannuation

 

underestimate

underestimation